Replacement of fish meal with soy protein concentrate and microbial flocs meal in diets for Litopenaeus vannamei
As a result of the stagnation of industrial fisheries, aquaculture emerges as an alternative to the fishing sector. However, the high dependence on fish meal used as the main protein source in the diets of many species in aquaculture, shows that the pressure on the stocks of small pelagic fish remains high. In addition, fishmeal production has remained stable in recent decades, with prices varying according to supply and demand. Thus, many efforts have been directed in the search for cheaper and more available alternative protein ingredients for use in feed, as is the case of plant-based products and by-products of livestock and poultry. Soybean meal offers an economically and nutritionally viable source of protein, but antinutritional factors,low palatability and deficiency of amino acids and essential fatty acids may limit their use in diets for L. vannamei. On the other hand, soy protein concentrate (CPS) has characteristics superior to bran, such as a reasonable amino acid profile, high protein, energy and digestibility values. However, the use of these ingredients depends to a large extent on the species' nutritional requirement, fish meal prices and environmental regulations of production systems. Another ingredient that has been successful as a substitute for fishmeal in feed for L. vannamei are microbial flakes formed in environments of super-intensive fish and shrimp farming. In addition to having numerous nutritional benefits,it also brings environmental benefits with the reuse of effluents. Aquaculture can only play its role in contributing to the global demand for protein if it reduces the use of fish in food and adopts more ecological management practices.