Replacement of fish meal with cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis in the formulation of diets for Litopenaeus vannamei
Aquaculture development is directly related to population growth and fishing stagnation. More than 30 million tons of fishing resources are used to obtain fish oil and flour (PF), which are the main sources of protein used in the formulation of feed in aquaculture. The prices of these ingredients have been increasing in recent years due to the growth of aquaculture and a decrease in stocks of forage species. Several studies look for alternative ingredients to PF that can be used in the formulation of diets to feed aquatic organisms and thus reduce the dependence of aquaculture on fishing. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with different percentages of substitution of PF for flour from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (0%, 25%, 50%,75% and 100%) to feed Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and thus test the effects on zootechnical development and the immune response of this species. The study was carried out at the Marine Aquaculture Station (EMA) of the Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG). The results obtained in this work were statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test and when there were statistical differences, the means were contrasted using the Newman-Keuls test, all at the 5% level of significance. There were no significant differences in weight gain between shrimp from substitution treatments from 0% to 75%, however there were statistical differences in different hemato-immunological parameters, both in the number of hemocytes (granular and hyaline) from 25% inclusion of cyanobacteria.Lower values were obtained in the apoptotic index showing statistically significant differences for the treatment of 100% replacement of FP with cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.