Production of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis in systems with minimal water renewal
In Brazil, carcinoculture is based exclusively on the species Litopenaeus vannamei. However, the accidental release and / or escape of exotic species from the rearing system to the environment can lead to environmental imbalance. In addition, food management during shrimp production is marked by the intensive use of protein-rich foods of animal origin. Since, of the food used, only 17% of the nutrients are absorbed by the shrimp, while the remaining portion accumulates in the water and sediment, being subsequently released as effluents into the environment. In this sense,The present thesis aimed to contribute to the development of the production technology of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis in systems that stimulate the participation of microorganisms in the control of water quality and in the reduction of effluent emissions. To this end, a bibliographic survey was initially carried out (chapter I of this thesis) to determine the biological characteristics, the situation of fishing and aquaculture, as well as to determine the main problems faced in the production of F. brasiliensis. In chapter II, the sperm quality of the breeders kept in biofloc technology (BFT) and fed with commercial feed (38% PB) was compared, with the breeders kept in clear water and fed with fresh food and commercial feed for breeders.The results observed in this study demonstrate that the maintenance of breeders can be performed in BFT system, with reduced rate of water renewal and use of feed with low crude protein content (38%), without affecting the sperm quality of F. brasiliensis and water quality. In chapter III, the water quality and the quality of the post-larvae of F. brasiliensis produced in a conventional system were compared (TC control treatment, without the use of probiotics and 70% daily water renewal), and in two systems with reduced water renewal rate (20% daily renewal) associated with daily applications of probiotics (TA treatment, composed of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus lecheniformis and TB treatment composed of Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Enterococcus sp.).The results demonstrate that the probiotics tested were efficient in controlling water quality, even with a reduction in the water renewal rate from 70 to 20% per day. In addition, the probiotic composed of different groups of bacteria provided greater survival of post-larvae to the salt stress test. In chapter IV, different stocking densities of F. brasiliensis juveniles were evaluated, created in the nursery system and in the BFT system. The results of this study demonstrate that the production of F. brasiliensis, in a BFT system during the nursery phase, can be carried out at a density of 600 juveniles / m2, without reducing survival and without the need to carry out water renovations to maintain the water quality. In chapter V, different storage densities of juveniles of F. were evaluated.brasiliensis reared in BFT during the initial fattening phase. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the production of F. brasiliensis during the initial fattening phase, can be carried out at a density of 300 juveniles / m2, with a small reduction in the survival rate and greater biomass production, in addition to no water renewal has been carried out to maintain water quality. Finally, the results of this Thesis highlight that the production of the pink shrimp F. brasiliensis in biofloc technology and applications of probiotics, made it possible to reduce the use of water resources and the release of effluents, which leads to lower environmental impacts, as well how they enabled improvements in quality and productivity.